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The perfect formula to improve the sustainability of companies

The agreement signed in February 2014 between FEC (Future Energy Consulting Services GmbH) and CIRCUTOR to promote and develop activities related to marketing energy efficiency and solar energy solutions has begun to see results.

This first year of working together has resulted in the development of three projects that deliver the perfect combination of environmental sustainability, economic viability and social outreach for companies as varied as a car dealership and a vegetable processing and packing plant in Southern Spain.

The FEC group includes the development company PROCONSULT and the SOLAREC engineering company specialised in implementing solar energy systems. They have both worked with CIRCUTOR on the design, construction and start-up of the first three projects of a long list that will be refined in the upcoming months.

PROCONSULT's solutions for companies come together under the term SUN TOWER, which encapsulates the concepts of:

  1. Improved building energy efficiency through the implementation of an energy monitoring application with POWER STUDIO SCADA.
  2. Harnessing the building's potential for energy self-production through the installation of photovoltaic solutions like the SUN TOWER solar tracker, rooftop solar systems and CIRCUTOR's PVing Park photovoltaic canopies.
  3. Adapting the building for the arrival of electric vehicles through the installation of CIRCUTOR's RVE2-P charging points in a solar parking area.

The solution is backed by a guarantee to offer each client the best solution adapted to their consumption needs and available spaces. Mature solutions, proven technology and suppliers with financing available. This means that projects can be undertaken by companies with confidence that resulting savings will offset the investment made and that financing is guaranteed.

Energy costs currently account for a high percentage of company spending, with the added uncertainty that future instability could jeopardise competitiveness. The strength of these solutions is that they allow the building to use sunlight to generate between 30 and 50% of the energy required on-site and reduce energy requirements to a minimum with consumption monitoring that makes it possible to define actions to be implemented and quantify their results.

PV system can add around  50% the energy demand
PV system can add around
50% the energy demand

All these projects have been formalised under the heading of photovoltaic energy installations connected to the grid with zero injection of surplus energy. This formula significantly eases the administrative requirements of solar installations designed for the self-sufficiency of buildings. The system aims to reduce internal electricity consumption, achieve energy independence, and generate energy locally, not for injection into the distribution lines.

The solar production is regulated through the Dynamic Power Controller (CDP) designed by CIRCUTOR. This device sends a power modulation order to the solar system inverters so that they adapt the generated power to a maximum value that is always less than the instantaneous power demanded by the loads in real time.

The fact that self-consumption photovoltaic systems produce part of the energy required by buildings and do not inject surpluses into the grid allows government to assign them an energy savings role, facilitating their processing. Likewise, having no grid injection frees these systems from maximum installable power restrictions based on the discharge capacity of the distribution lines.

The term SUN TOWER broadly encompasses the implementation of PowerStudioScada energy management software, solar tracker systems, rooftop systems and CIRCUTOR's PVing Park photovoltaic canopies, as well as RVE2-P quick charging points for electric vehicles.

The term SUN TOWER broadly encompasses the implementation of PowerStudioScada energy management software, solar tracker systems, rooftop systems and CIRCUTOR's PVing Park photovoltaic canopies, as well as RVE2-P quick charging points for electric vehicles.

Solar photovoltaic systems for selfconsumption with zero injection into the grid are supported by a growing number of governments that provide for legal installations in a simple, quick and economical way without the need for prior approval processes with the utility companies.

The integration of all the activities from the various projects into a single platform through the POWER STUDIO SCADA monitoring and supervision application allows you to not only quantify the solar production of each of the systems, but also tracks the evolving consumption of each productive section of a company as well as the impact of the different energy savings actions that have been implemented.

The integration of all the activities from the various projects into a single platform through the POWER STUDIO SCADA monitoring and supervision application allows you to not only quantify the solar production of each of the systems, but also tracks the evolving consumption of each productive section of a company as well as the impact of the different energy savings actions that have been implemented.

The SCADA application enables SOLAREC to perform corrective and preventive maintenance in order to guarantee the results of each of the projects as well as design future energy strategies for each user.

By performing simulations to generate the energy bill and calculate the impact of the savings provided by solar production, you can verify the profitability of investments as well as the specific energy costs of each business process in every industry. The design and implementation of the POWER STUDIO application as well as the electrical installations required for these projects have been carried out by CIRCUTOR's expert engineering and installations company, Aseprel, SL (www.aseprel.es)

The installation of the RVE2-P electric vehicle charging points in the projects not only conveys an image of modernity and environmental commitment to employees and customers of companies, but also serves to adapt the infrastructure to new transitional energy regulations centred on mobility, like the recently-approved ITC-BT-52 of the Low Voltage Electrotechnical Regulation.

The 246 kW of rated power installed in the three completed projects have an annual production potential of nearly 400,000 kWh. This would mean approximate energy savings of €80,000/year and a reduction of 90 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere each year. Moreover, the three QUICK charging points for electric vehicles will provide the basis for a provincial infrastructure that will enable the development of these vehicles, resulting in greater cost reductions and emissions in the years to come.

These projects have undoubtedly positioned the companies of the FEC Services group at the forefront of solar energy technology in buildings and as a sector leader in Southern Spain. This has paved the way for the group to win more projects and expand its activity to other areas with identical needs and great potential for savings.

Based on the experience gained in these first projects, now in operation, FEC Services and CIRCUTOR are working to adapt this partnership scheme to Latin American countries where there is a great need to provide solutions in energy efficiency, self-consumption of solar energy and the integration of electric mobility. The first projects are underway in Mexico and Chile.

For contact details and more information: www.proconsult.es

Information on completed projects:

  • Client: Premium Almería
  • Actions taken:
    • PowerStudioScada software application
    • Installation of a SUN TOWER solar tracker
    • Installation of PVing PARKS photovoltaic canopy with 4 parking spaces
    • Installation of RVE2-P electric vehicle charging point.
  • Photovoltaic power installed: 21 kW
  • Roll-out: June, 2014
  • Location: Huércal, Almeria (Spain)
Premium Almería
  • Client: Frutas Escobi
  • Actions taken:
    • PowerStudioScada software application
    • Installation of a SUN TOWER solar tracker
    • Installation of PVing PARKS photovoltaic canopy with 8 parking spaces
    • Installation of rooftop solar system
    • Installation of RVE2-P electric vehicle charging point.
  • Photovoltaic power installed: 60 kW
  • Roll-out: September, 2014
  • Location: El Ejido, Almería (Spain)
Frutas Escobi
  • Client: Hortofrutícola Las Norias
  • Actions taken:
    • PowerStudioScada software application
    • Installation of a SUN TOWER solar tracker
    • Installation of PVing PARKS photovoltaic canopy with 54 parking spaces
    • Installation of rooftop solar system
    • Installation of RVE2-P electric vehicle charging point
  • Photovoltaic power installed: 165 kW
  • Roll-out: January 2015
  • Location: El Ejido, Almería (Spain)
Hortofrutícola Las Norias



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More information about Smart electric vehicle charging system


More information about Renewable energies


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  • 拥有超过250名员工以及年营业额超过5千万欧元的公司。
  • 年度资产负债表达到4千3百万欧元的公司。




  • 及时进行电能审计。至关重要的合作伙伴:电能服务公司在这里会起到至关重要的作用,CIRCUTOR提供开放的合作模式,详情可洽询我们的销售网络
  • 确认推荐使用的能效功能,在对实际安装的系统通过投资回报以及方案质量进行环评检测。您将看到提高能效的目的已经达到了。
  • 告知和培训系统终端用户。用户的使用习惯将在节能工程中起到非常重要的作用。应该不定期的进行告知和培训,更应该定期更新以跟上科技进步,员工流动以及生活方式习惯的改变。RCUTOR同时有面对面以及线上培训两种方式。


  • 能源服务公司进行能源审计的是经过良好培训的有资质的员工,正如法律所规定的。
  • 能源安装公司设计、实施和监控能源效率以达到要求。
  • 电气输配电公司有资质的员工可为电能效率领域服务提供附加值。


t. (+34) 93 745 29 00





近二十年来CIRCUTOR一直采用气体填充技术,与其他最先进的技术一起,使电容器成为市面上称之为增强型的电容器。电容器长时间可达1.8倍额定电流,达到2.5倍额定电流,并且峰值电流最高可达400倍额定电流。IEC-60831的D等级,低压电容器的生产标准,设置最大工作温度值在 55ºC,但CIRCUTOR增强型电容器的强度支持电容器在极限温度环境下工作,瞬时温度支持达到65ºC,另一个重要的特性是支持150,000小时使用寿命。所有的这些特性使得CIRCUTOR增强型电容器有很高的抗性和持久性。

With CIRCUTOR Heavy Duty, the key material is metallized polypropylene, which is always of European origin with the very highest performance features.




  • 与其他相同容量的电容器相比,增强型电容器同时节省了运费和所配的电池的成本,更好的节约了成本,最终用户与整个供应链共同达到了双赢的结果。
  • 提高了安全性,归功于更高效的内压安全阀保护系统。在没有液体溶剂(油)或固态填充物(热固性树脂)时,故障产生的情况下,电容器内部气体扩散直接作用于内压安全阀保护。
  • 无泄漏同时支持多种安装方案,适用于不同类型的柜体,最优化适用于每一位用户的最终解决方案。
  • 注重环保,因为电容器注入了无害的惰性气体,不含油性或其他有泄露风险的填充物。

CIRCUTOR增强型电容器承诺达到高水准的特性,最少的维护,保持温度达到150000小时的工作寿命。CIRCUTOR Heavy Duty capacitors saturated with inert gas (DRY technology) are very safe


增强型电容器除了填充惰性气体以外,另一个优势是全金属化自愈的能力(figure 1),防止了电介质击穿后的漏电。这提高了在任何电网下的过压,工作温度过高,以及电网中需要补偿的谐波电流,甚至过多的投切操作次数的的耐受能力。Self-healing process of the metalized polypropylene

和其他任何材料一样,随着时间的推移,聚丙烯会发生化学改变。这会影响到电容器的电力因数。正因如此,电容器应该装备相应的保护系统,这样当有必要时,可以将其断开以避免影响到相邻元器件(电容器,投切设备,电抗器等)。在这方面,CIRCUTOR增强型电容器配备了泄压保护系统,当电容器内部压强高于506 hPa时,约(0.5 bar),系统将会启动,会将电容器从电网中断开,如 figure 2所示。Figure.2  The CIRCUTOR Heavy Duty capacitors have an overpressure protection system which is activated in case of any increase in internal pressure, disconnecting the capacitor from the network.


下一页中的figure 3展示了电容器的主要组成部分,填充了CIRCUTOR增强型电容器气体。

Figure 3
Figure 3


  1. 一旦电容芯被放置在铝管中,必须确保完全排除了这些组成部分中的任何可能存在的湿度,所以每只电容器都在真空环境下经历了一个漫长的真空处理程序。这是非常有必要的用于确保没有任何的湿度和氧气残存在电容器内部,可以有效的防止聚丙烯膜金属部分的氧化。这一防止氧化措施同时可避免电容器的快速衰减从而降低了了电介质损耗。减少了内部放电并提高了其整个工作寿命期间的容量。
  2. 在真空处理过后,电容器内部将会充满 N2 (氮气)以及He4(伴有4个原子质量的氦气同位素,其中有一个非常低的密度,是无色无臭无味的自然元素)的混合气体。再一次置于真空条件下,直到电容器内部压力微高于1013 hPa (1atm)。图片显示这一填充过程。
  3. 在图中可以看出,在填充和密封电容器过程中,电容罐顶盖已经装有一套端子用于将电容器连接到电网。这些端子内部已经装备了放电电阻,用于电容器放电,从电网中断开后 3分钟内达到小于75 (如图所示),符合应用标准IEC 60831-1所列明的。
  4. 在生产过程的最后将进行基本的性能测试以保证每只电容器的质量与性能:检查密封过程以保证内部气体没有泄露。如果检测到有任何泄露存在,这只电容器将会从生产过程中被取出。.
Figure 4 Capacitor filling and sealing process
Figure 4. 
Figure 5 Terminals for connection to the network
Figure 5. 



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4 个重点目标



  1. 供电延续性
  2. 电能效率管理
  3. 报警管理
    效率管理报警 (入侵检测,信息,误操作等)
  4. 建立管理系统

怎样达到 4 个目标

1. 供电延续性








RECmax LPd连接到WGC/WGS环形互感器保证在漏电,过载或短路跳闸后进行漏电短路保护并带自动重合闸。

  • 电话系统
  • DTT 系统
  • IT 系统, UPS

RECmax. Earth leakage circuit breaker with self-reclosing system and display (LCD)



Type B. Full range of Type B earth leakage protection and monitoring devices

2. 电能效率管理


  • 电源监控





  • 监控设备


  • 空调



  • 照明


  • IT 设备

The European Commission also has a code of conduct for reducing the impact of data centres' growing energy consumption.





PUE = Total energy supplied / Energy for IT equipment


Companies like Google have gotten the average PUE of their DPCs down to 1.22, and sometimes as low as 1.15.

      • 历史记录 2.0
      • 当前趋势 1.9
      • 优化操作 1.7
      • 最优实施 1.3
      • 最先进技术 1.2


3. 报警管理



4. 管理系统建立



The installation's architecture would be designed in three blocks


  • 本地管理




Local management system

  • 调制解调管理


为达到该目的,各个地方中心发送数据到一个带有PowerStudio Scada电能分析软件的调制解调服务器代替各个地方中心的集中控制。

PowerStudio Scada平台接受和存储所有存储的信息并随后发送到控制中心的管理软件。因此,大量信息存储到中心服务器不饱和扇区,使后续的管理更加高效同时保证数据冗余,数据存储到EDS管理器和PowerStudio Scada系统中。


Intermediate management system

  • 管理控制中心


这需要安装一个使用PowerStudio Scada Deluxe平台的服务器。这一全局平台将可以添加安装在中级管理器上的不同的PowerStudio Scada,从而可以从他们的数据库获取反馈并集中化管理整个基础设施。




Control centre architecture

PowerStudio Scada is the energy management software from CIRCUTORPowerStudio Scada 是 CIRCUTOR 推出的一款电能管理软件

PowerStudio Scada 用于中转中心控制

PowerStudio Scada

  • 变量实时显示
  • 建立数据中心
  • 图表显示
  • 数据表格
  • 建立SCADA页面
  • 建立个性化报告
  • 发送和响应报警(事件)
  • XML 服务器
  • 导出数据(.txt, 以及 .cvs)

Scada PowerStudio/Deluxe 软件应用实例

Application examples of the Scada PowerStudio/Deluxe software

PowerStudio Scada DELUXE 从主要控制中心管理

PowerStudio Scada DELUXE

Power Studio Scada Deluxe + :

  • Modbus 通用驱动程序(可添加任何市面上带有Modbus通讯协议的设备)
  • OPC Client (服务器数据到 OPC 系统)
  • 多点 PSS (添加其他 PSS到信号控制和管理系统)


  • 转换数据到SQL并自动导出到第三方系统



1. 本地管理
EDS + 控制和管理系统

2. 中间管理
带有PowerStudio Scada软件的服务器用于数据管理和控制等级Œ(1)本地系统

3. 控制中心管理
带有 PowerStudio Scada Deluxe 集中服务器用于控制中间等级管理 (2) 和等级本地管理系统(1).
数据管理系统用于SQL, XML 或 WEB.
管理SNMP报警系统从(1) EDS 设备.

Example of the system's global architecture




  • 供电连续性安全.
  • 修正管理并减少冷却系统损耗.
  • 减少电气成本通过管理和不同负载的预防性操作.
  • 通过功率因数校正减少电气成本.
  • 提高功率使用效率 (PUE)指标,适应欧盟建议的排放等级.
  • 报警控制.
  • 自计费可预估电费账单.
  • 全球和集中化管理通讯基础设施(遥控站点或数据处理中心).

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New CEM series of multifunction energy meters for DIN rail connection

In an increasingly globalized world it is essential to manage efficiently the electrical consumption. In addition, the steady increase in the price of energy creates to the users the need to find new formulas to manage their installations.

The new CIRCUTOR's CEM series of multifunction energy meters provides all the essential information about the different consumption habits of an installation, helping to save money, resources and improving the installation's electrical energy efficiency.

The information is the key for an efficient management

The information is the key for an efficient management

Why install a CEM meter?

The objective of the new modular CEM meters is to allow the user to understand the electrical installation behavior by recording real energy patterns in order to take correct decisions to reduce and manage its electrical consumption. Thus, the user gets all the relevant information about how, when and where the energy is consumed. With all that information, it is possible to have all the billing data before receiving the utility's official bill, allowing the user to share out the costs with the different areas in the installation.

The task of identifying the individual consumptions, in one installation, is an almost impossible exercise if sectorized measurements are not taken. Therefore, to allocate costs to processes, devices or areas, it is completely necessary to implement a solution able to report detailed information about the electrical consumption by subdivisions and/or individually. In addition, CEM meters register the energy monetary cost (Euro, Dollars,..) and kgCO2 emissions for each tariff.

As an added value, it's reduced space and easy installation on DIN rail avoids high investments in modifying the current installation. This makes the new CEM's ideal to be installed in any switchboard or existing machinery.

The importance of the MID approval (EN 50470)

The new CEM energy meters are certified according to the European Directive MID (EN 50470). This allows the meters to be used for economic transactions (internal energy invoicing).

The EN 50470 standard declares the design and manufacturing process control by an external laboratory, ensuring the meters quality and transmitting the confidence to the different end users.


The new modular CEM meters are designed to be installed in any sector or application, always offering a wide range of advantages to the end user. Summarizing, three different areas of use can be defined:

  • Tertiary sector: Is common to find installations such as shopping malls, hotels, campsites, offices, airports or marinas where there is installed a single official utility meter which measures the total consumption of the installation. To allocate the real energy cost to the end users some formulas can be used but the most correct action would be to measure the real consumption, with high accuracy and individually.

Moreover, its reduced space with DIN rail connection makes its installation fast and easy in the existing switchboards.


Individual measurements allow a correct allocation of costs

Individual measurements allow a correct allocation of costs

  • Industrial sector: All industrial installations have an official billing meter installed on the main to measure and register the total energy consumption. However, this fact creates an ignorance of where, when and how this energy is consumed.

Registering the electrical consumption, the manager will be able to make the right decisions while connecting the different loads or starting processes, preventing simultaneous consumptions and maximum demand penalties. Moreover, the manager will have enough information to select the installation's most suitable electrical tariff.

As additional features, CEM meters register the energy cost (Euro, Dollar,...) and kgCO2 emissions for each tariff being key factors for understanding and improving the energy efficiency of the installation. Thus, by means of rigorous measurements, the operational manufacturing costs (OpEx) will improve.

The measurement requires precise knowledge, individually or sectorized, of each productive process

The measurement requires precise knowledge, individually
or sectorized, of each productive process

  • Condominium: There are some buildings where the neighbors share between them the total electricity bill without any control. In these cases, there is a meter installed on the main and the total consumption is paid by dividing the cost between the different tenants. Without an individualized measurement the distribution of costs may not be equal because it depends on the use of each tenant.

Installing the new modular CEM meters, the manager avoids possible complaints from the tenants. Therefore, installing individual meters together with the PowerStudio Scada software, the manager will be able to invoice customized bills to each tenant, even before receiving the official utility bill for the entire building.

Individual measurements transmit confidence to the different tenants

Individual measurements transmit confidence to the different tenants

The benefits for each sector can be summarized in the following table:

  • Equitable energy cost allocation through individualized measurements (processes/tenants).
  • Possibility to communicate the CEM meters with PowerStudio Scada to invoice customized bills to each tenant.
  • Reduced space in DIN rail connection with easy and fast installation.
  • MID approval (EN 50470) ensuring the safety and meter accuracy
  • Improvement on operational costs due to the measuring and monitoring of real energy data.
  • Operational costs registration via Modbus/RTU by using Scada software.
  • Displays the energy costs (Euro, Dollar,..) and kgCO2 emissions on each tariff.
  • Prevents simultaneous consumptions and maximum demand penalties.
  • Helps to select the most suitable electrical tariff.
  • Reduced space in DIN rail connection with easy and fast installation

CEM meters with OSC communications

In order to perform the different energy consumption analysis, CIRCUTOR launches the new CEM series of multifunction energy meters for DIN rail connection with OSC communication system. The new range consists of single (CEM-C10) and three phase direct (CEM-C20) and indirect (CEM-C30) meters. All the meters have a single pulse output to send pulses in relation to the consumed or generated energy.

To provide communications to the system it is as easy as coupling an additional CEM-M module which communicates directly with a CEM meter through OSC system. This system consists of an optical window that allows optical communications between the meter and the CEM-M module without the need of any extra wiring. Furthermore, the CEM-M module has a wired RS-485 output to send the meter's information to our PowerStudio Scada software via Modbus/RTU to register and monitor all the relevant data such as energy consumption, voltage, current, power, power factor and frequency.

OSC communication system

OSC communication system

The solution: New CEM multifunction energy meters

The new range of modular CEM meters allows obtaining all the relevant information about the different consumption habits of an installation, helping to save money, resources and improve the energy efficiency of an installation.

The CEM range consists on single and three phase static meters to measure the Active energy with Class B/1 (EN 50470/IEC 62053-21) and Reactive energy Class 2 (IEC 62053-23) with DIN rail connection. Each one has a 7-digit LCD display with scrolling screens and two buttons (1 sealable) to show all energy variables.

The CEM-M module provides RS-485 communications with Modbus/RTU protocol, connecting through optical interface (OSC) to any CEM-C meter.

cem-c10  cem-c20  cem-c30  cem-m 
 2 modules  4 modules  4 modules  2 modules





Single phase direct energy meter, up to 65 A Three phase direct energy meter, up to 65 A Three phase indirect energy meter .../5(10) A  Communication module for CEM energy meters
More information
More information
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Medida de parámetros eléctricos  Electrical parameter measurement 
 V, A, kW, kW·h, kvar, cosφ
Sistema OSC    OSC System
Medida en 2 ó 4 cuadrantes Measurement in 2 or 4 quadrants Modbus/RTU (RS-485) Modbus/RTU (RS-485)
1 salida de impulsos Impulse output
Plug&play Plug&play     
Precintable Sealable  
Certificación MID    Clase B (IEC50470)  Clase 1 (IEC62053-21) MID Approval 
 Class B/1 (EN 50470/IEC 62053-21)


t. (+34) 93 745 29 00


A large part of unwanted tripping in an installation is caused by a lack of selectivity coordination between the earth leakage protections. With good installation practices, we can solve a large part of the earth leakage protection tripping.

Selectivity in earth leakage protection must be both horizontal and vertical. In this article, we will deal with the 3 essential rules for vertical selectivity

3 conditions must be met in order to guarantee correct vertical selectivity:

  • Amperometric selectivity
  • Chronometric selectivity
  • Type selectivity

Amperometric selectivity

 Amperometric selectivity


This condition must ensure that the sensitivity value of the earth leakage protection connected upstream (I∆1) is more than double the sensitivity of the protection connected downstream (I∆2).

For example, with an earth leakage protection with a sensitivity of 30 mA (I∆2) we might have a protection of 100 mA (I∆1) or higher upstream.

Only with amperometric selectivity would we meet one of the three conditions, so the selectivity would only be partial.

  Amperometric selectivity

Chronometric selectivity

 Chronometric selectivity


This condition must guarantee that an earth leakage protection connected upstream (t1) does not act before a protection downstream (t2) to avoid any current value.

The response times must be kept below the safety limit times.

We will achieve total selectivity along with amperometric selectivity.

  Chronometric selectivity

Type selectivity

 Type selectivity


To guarantee vertical selectivity, the type of class or earth leakage protection upstream must be the same as or higher than the protection installed downstream.

Due to the ever-larger demand in earth leakage protections in installations, more and more type A and type B protections are required, which makes it necessary to respect the vertical selectivity according to the type installed downstream.

  Type selectivity

Selectivity requirements

With CIRCUTOR's RGU-2, RGU-10, RGU-10B and CBS4 earth leakage protections, we can adapt to the selectivity requirements of any installation. We can therefore easily adapt both to the necessary parameters of sensitivity and time.

Earth leakage protection

With a single earth leakage protection, we are able to protect a single load, a sub-panel or a general supply. All of this added to their ultra-immunity and high performance (prealarm, display and communications), make CIRCUTOR earth leakage protections the ideal option for any installation.


Francesc Fornieles Castells

Responsable de Mercados - División Gestión Energética y Calidad de Red
Markets Manager - Energy Management and Power Quality Division



For many years now, power factor correction has been one of the first steps to improving the energy efficiency of installations. Since their beginnings, compensation techniques have grown and developed over the years, adapting to new needs (basically the types of loads that must be compensated) and to new technologies that have become available.

At first, the most common compensation technique was to use capacitor banks with contactor operation. This compensation system is optimal for balanced systems and to compensate loads with connection and disconnection rates that are not too fast, on the order of seconds, and it is currently the most common system in most installations despite increasing numbers of unbalanced installations.

The passage of time and the growing use of more dynamic loads in many installations has led to the emergence of a new technique: the use of static contactors (solid-state relays or thyristors) to operate the capacitors in a capacitor bank. This technique has a set of important advantages over compensation with contactor operation:

  • Response speed: the use of thyristors enables compensation in installations with highly fluctuating load variations (in cycles, on the order of ms), making it the optimal solution for cosφ correction of very fast loads. The paradigmatic case would be the compensation of welds, although lifts, freight elevators, compressors, etc. would also be on the list of likely loads.
  • Elimination of mechanical wear: contactors have a limited mechanical life, which incurs the need for regular maintenance to ensure the capacitor bank is functioning properly. The use of thyristor operation eliminates this need, extending the useful life of the capacitor bank assembly and reducing maintenance costs.
  • Less noise: the use of electronics during contactor operation eliminates mechanical noises generated by the contactors, which can become an annoyance in service installations.
  • Elimination of connection transients: the use of zero switching control boards ensures the elimination of transients when the capacitor connects, giving it a longer useful life and eliminating disturbances on the electrical network.

In the early days of this new technology its main drawback was its high price, which meant that investing in this type of unit necessitated long repayment periods for most companies, making it difficult to justify the expenditure, even more so if compared to traditional compensation with contactors.

FO OPTIM EMS-C 250x250

CIRCUTOR was a pioneer in developing the technology used in static capacitor banks and has included them in its catalogue for more than 20 years, making the company a leader in this technique within the electricity market. In recent times, significant R&D efforts have been made to adapt the new emerging technologies to this compensation technique, developing a new range of static capacitor banks that drastically reduce the price difference between the two compensation systems (contactors / thyristors), thus eliminating the main obstacle to choosing a static capacitor bank as a compensation method.

To this end, CIRCUTOR has launched the new range of EMS-C static capacitor banks which are ideal for industrial applications, such as arc welding, compressor start-up, cranes and hoists. But they are also suitable for the service sectors, such as compensating lifts in communities of residents, given that the traditional contactor technique does not compensate them well due to their quick input and output rate.

Thanks to minimising the cost difference between classic compensation with contactors and advanced static compensation, CIRCUTOR has turned the choice of a static capacitor bank from a technical whim to a tangible reality within the reach of all budgets.


More information about 低压自动补偿电容柜


Documentation about Automatic capacitor banks


您也可以关注我们的公众账号CIRCUTOR的 Twitter账号, 以及LinkedIn.

数据中心如何提高电能效率 (DPCs)


The importance of knowing the PUE. Managing effective energy use

We can calculate the energy efficiency of any production system by comparing the useful energy with the total energy needed by the system. With this information and knowing where the inefficiencies are, we can achieve substantial savings and more environmentally friendly operations.

As a practical example, an average data processing centre with installed power of 100 kW can achieve savings of €8,000 to -€16,000 in the electricity bill as a result of improved energy efficiency. To do so, it is as important to detect the points of consumption as it is to assess the corrective measures.

The energy factor is so critical in data processing centres that it has its own indicator: PUE or Power Usage Effectiveness, defined by a standard issued by The Green Grid, a global environmental agency comprised of over 175 internationally renowned companies.

The European Commission also has a code of conduct for reducing the impact of data centres' growing energy consumption.

It periodically publishes best practices for data processing centres, most recently in 2013.


These centres have a peculiar profile due to their uninterrupted working hours. Because of the great importance of service continuity when powering servers, computers and communications, they have three main groups of units for their exclusive use:

  • Energy supply and control units (electricity and other sources, such as diesel oil, gas, etc.) essential for the functioning of these continuous operation units. This group includes supply connections and switchboards, lighting and refrigeration systems, air conditioning of the corresponding rooms, etc.
  • One or several units to supply power computer equipment (IT), comprised of UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply) units .
  • The distribution panels and systems for this energy to power the computer equipment.

Broadly speaking, we can say that of the 100% total energy consumed in a DPC, 60% corresponds to the infrastructure's electrical consumption and the remaining 40% to refrigeration systems.

So we can undoubtedly see the need for coefficients (PUE) that make it possible to prepare comparative studies aimed at determining actions for optimising the energy consumption of these centres.

Calculation guidelines

As we have already seen, we normally use the standard issued by The Green Grid to calculate the parameters for DPC efficiency. We will distinguish two key indicators:

1. PUE: Power Usage Effectiveness, calculated with the formula:


2. DCE: Data Centre Efficiency, calculated as a percentage with the formula:


In addition, the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States (EPA) provides the following PUE values as a reference:

  • Historic 2.0
  • Current trend 1.9
  • Optimised operations 1.7
  • Best practices 1.3
  • State-of-the-art 1.2

Companies like Google have gotten the average PUE of their DPCs down to 1.22, and sometimes as low as 1.15.

In the historic frame of reference (PUE 2.0), typical consumption for different DPC elements is:


Therefore, one of the keys to the success of an energy improvement project is measuring the consumption of each unit type in order to be able to recognise the most affordable areas of improvement.

There are three general measurement levels* shown in the table below, with measuring points that correspond to the indicators in the diagram also shown below, with energy measured in kWh. A 12-month cycle is taken as a comparative reference for all levels.

There is also a Level 0, which only includes power measurements (kW), measuring the general demand of the installation and that of the UPS output.

measuring the general demand


CIRCUTOR with its decades of experience in energy efficiency, solutions, offers a wide range of products that facilitate continuous data gathering for controlling PUE and DCE, UPS unit performance, electric energy management and DPC maintenance. These include energy meters, power analyzers, ultra-immunised earth leakage protection, harmonic filtering systems, PowerStudio Scada management software and power factor correction systems.

CIRCUTOR’s Solution with the SCADA system

For the study, two implementation phases and a third study phase are required:

  1. Measurement: with the addition of CVM power analyzer units, with their corresponding current transformers, equipped with RS485 serial communications to measure circulating energy.
  2. Analysis: installing the PowerStudio Scada application, calculating and viewing the resulting values and running the corresponding reports.
  3. Improvements: analysing the collected data lets us see which units are consuming.


The application features:

A start screen in single-line diagram format (Fig.1) with data corresponding to all the concurrent energy types (converted to KWh).   single-line diagram
A second summary screen (Fig.2) with performance calculations (Fig.3), enabling you to create and display reports with results for different periods (daily, weekly, monthly and yearly).    performance calculations

By way of example, here are the screens displayed when installing CVM analyzers and programming a specific Scada application.

On the first one you can see the installation diagram and unit connections; on the second one you can see the resulting data online for a single DPC; and on the third one is a weekly Level 1 report with continuous measuring frequency.

   Weekly PUE calculation report
CIRCUTOR’s Solution with a local display screen

For the study, two implementation phases are required:

  1. Addition of CVM power analyzer units with their corresponding current transformers, equipped with RS485 serial communications to measure circulating energy.
  2. Addition of an EDS energy controller with storage and data processing functions and its built-in programming, along with a local display screen.

By way of example, here is the communication topology displayed when installing CVM analyzers, the EDS energy controller and the local display screen.

Solution with a local screen

How to improve the efficiency of a data processing centre

To improve the efficiency of a data processing centre, we must follow measuring and analysis by implementing improvement actions. There are actions that do not require any investment, such as reducing the contracted power to save on direct costs, and other actions that do require investment, such as replacing units with more efficient ones.

To organise these improvement actions you can prioritise them in accordance with the efficiency that can be achieved with each one. This prioritisation is calculated by comparing the improvement obtained with the investment required to make the improvement.

Action priority   

Pa: Action priority
CEa: Current energy consumption
CEm: Energy consumption with the new measure.
Investment: investment needed to achieve the savings

Performing this calculation for each possible improvement action helps us prepare a list of actions and sort them from highest to lowest priority.

Possible short-term measures include:

  • Analysing usage patterns for the environments where they have been deployed.
    • Calculating the minimum server group sizes to maintain service levels.
    • Switching off unused capacity, as long as proper availability is maintained.
  • Virtualisation and consolidation
  • Replacing hardware
    • Virtualising test environments.
    • Replacing obsolete hardware.
  • Changes in room management
    • Correct control and adjustment of room temperature.
  • Changes to the refrigeration infrastructure.
    • New efficient refrigeration machinery.
    • Hot aisle/cold aisle layout.
    • Elimination of "gaps" in the racks.
    • Future: use of outside air.
  • Lighting optimisation

For a more thorough list of Data Centre improvements, see the "2013 Best Practices issued by the European Commission's Renewable Energies Unit."


DPCs (Data Processing Centres) are major consumers of electrical energy and their consumption can be divided in useful energy for computer equipment and the additional energy necessary for their smooth functioning. This energy consumption is so critical that it has its own indicator: PUE (Power Usage Effectiveness).

In DPCs with non-optimised PUEs, this additional energy can account for up to 50% of the total energy, giving us good room for improvement. According to minimum availability requirements and the options for investment in improvements, savings of up to 20% of the total energy consumed can be achieved (or between €8,000- €16,000 a year in an average 100 kW DPC).

As we have seen in this article, it is possible to study and measure possible improvements to data processing centres. The key phases are installing energy measuring units, analysing the data gathered and making decisions based on that analysis.

CIRCUTOR, with its decades of experience in energy efficiency solutions, offers a wide range of products that facilitate continuous data gathering for control, maintenance and energy efficiency management of DPCs.


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Due to the constant increase of the electricity price, all types of customers must find new formulas to reduce their electricity bill. To succeed in this, we are presenting our new power management system to control the maximum demand: MDC series (MDC 4 and MDC 20).

How to understand the electricity bill

It is necessary to understand the different terms which appear in an electricity bill to identify where we can act to reduce it. Of all the concepts, the most important ones are: Active energy term, reactive energy term and, in some countries, the maximum demand term, being this one last the subject of this article.

As described below, an optimal management of the contracted power allows us to:

  • Adjust the installation to the real demand by reducing the contracted power
  • Avoid maximum demand penalties due to a power excess
Spanish bill simulation
Spanish bill simulation

Active energy term
Consumption of active energy (kWh), applying different tariffs and rates

Maximum demand term or Maximum demand indicator (MDI)
Maximum demand register (kW or kVA). This is the maximum power value, usually the average of 15 minutes, reached during the billing period (this average time may vary depending on the country). Once the value is higher than the contracted power, the customer will pay a penalty on the electricity bill.

Reactive energy term
Consumption of reactive energy (kVArh), applying different tariffs and rates. Depending on the cosϕ value, the user will pay a penalty (this penalty is not applied in all countries)

Maximum demand calculation

The maximum demand value is the average from the instantaneous power (in kW or kVA) during a defined time interval, usually every 15 minutes (this time interval will depend on each country). There are different methods to calculate this parameter:

Fixed window (Block window)

This is the maximum demand calculation during a defined interval (usually every 15 minutes). Once the data is obtained, the value is stored and it makes a reset to start a new calculation for the next 15 minutes. This 4 registers will be measured every hour.

Sliding Window

This is the maximum demand calculation during a defined interval (usually every 15 minutes). Once the data is obtained, it will wait one minute to start a new 15 minutes calculation (this time may vary depending on the country). This means that every minute (this time can depends on the meter) it will record one maximum demand value from the last 15-minute period. This 60 registers will be measured every hour.

What can we do to avoid maximum demand penalties on the electricity bill?

To avoid penalties for maximum demand we must ensure that this value will never exceed contracted power.

Usually in electricity bills, the highest maximum demand value recorded by the meter is compared to the contracted power. Whenever this value is higher than the contracted power, there will be an economic penalty. Therefore, if during the billing month the power exceeds the one contracted, during a period of 15 minutes, the customer will pay a penalty, even if it exceeds only once a month (one month has approximately 2880 fifteen-minute periods).

For the particular case of Spain, depending on the maximum demand value, the penalty can involve a very significant bill increase, as described in the following graph:

Maximum demand term increase depending on the Contracted power exceeds (Spain- for tariffs 3.0 and 3.1)
Maximum demand term increase depending on the Contracted power exceeds (Spain- for tariffs 3.0 and 3.1)

As shown in the graph, if the maximum demand value exceeds 10 % of the contracted power, the user will pay a 20% increase on the maximum demand term. However if the maximum demand value exceeds 20 % of the contracted power, the user will pay a 50% increase on the maximum demand term.

How to control the Maximum Demand value?

As we have been advancing, the goal to control the maximum demand is to not exceed the limit of the contracted power. To archive this goal, we advise to install a system able to disconnect non critical loads, on different time periods, and also avoid connecting loads simultaneously to reduce the instantaneous power.

Non-critical loads are those that do not affect the main production process or that are not essential, such as:

  • Lighting
  • Compressors
  • Air-conditioning systems
  • Pumps
  • Fans and extractors
  • Packaging machines
  • Shredders
  • others

Which devices help us avoid maximum demand penalties?

The main objective of the new CIRCUTOR MDC series is to manage and control the maximum demand of an installation. To achieve this objective, the device connects and disconnects some loads (non-critical ones) to ensure that the maximum demand will never be higher than the contracted power, avoiding electricity bill surprises. Moreover, the extended MDC 20 range, allows a tariff control to adjust the loads for being connected on periods with lower price, avoiding high consumptions due to loads simultaneity during high tariff price periods.

MDC 4 device
MDC 20
MDC 20 device

Small and medium-sized industries solution

MDC 4: Analyzer to control the maximum demand level

MDC 4 is perfect for those installations which need a basic maximum demand control. Following some easy configuration steps the user will define up to 4 maximum power levels to start disconnecting non-critical loads.

Furthermore, MDC 4 incorporates an internal power analyzer for the maximum demand calculation (it also records electrical parameters such as voltage, current and power). Every time MDC 4 detects a power excess, this will disconnect several lines with non-critical loads, reducing automatically the instantaneous power. This will ensure that the installation will not exceed the maximum demand limit, hence avoiding penalties on the next electricity bill.

Operation method of MDC 4

Operation method of MDC 4

  • Avoids maximum demand penalties
  • Avoids power peaks due to simultaneity while connecting loads
  • Helps to adjust the contracted power to the real situation
  • Manages up to 4 relay outputs
  • Built in power analyzer
  • Internal clock for power synchronization

Infrastructures and big-sized industries solution

MDC 20: Data logger to manage and control the maximum demand with integrated web server 

MDC 20 is a data logger with an integrated web server meant to manage and control the maximum demand. Its versatility allows the user to do basic or advanced configurations. MDC 20 manages non-critical loads to ensure that the maximum demand value will never exceed the contracted power, avoiding penalties for power excess.

MDC 20 has an Ethernet port and a RS-485 communication channel (Modbus RTU), 6 relay outputs for load management and 8 digital inputs for collecting pulses (from other meters) or for logical states (opened-closed). It is expandable up to 48 relay outputs and 48 digital inputs by connecting 12 LM 4I/O devices via RS-485 communications (with 4 inputs/outputs each one).

The device has an internal data base (more than one year of data) with an integrated web server with PowerStudio software for programming, configuring and monitoring the device status and the associated peripheral devices connected by RS-485. Furthermore, it graphically shows the simulation of the system behavior according to the programmed settings.

MDC 20 infrastructure

MDC 20 infrastructure

MDC 20
MDC 20
  • Avoids maximum demand penalties
  • Manages 6 relay outputs and 8 digital inputs
  • Expandable up to 48 inputs/outputs by RS-485 communications (installing LM 4 I/O devices)
  • Connection/disconnection of loads according to programmed priority
  • Versatile maximum demand control depending on conditions, using calendars, profiles, etc.
  • Simulation of system performance according to the device’s programming
  • Sends e-mails with customized messages
  • Stores more than one year of data
  • Compatible with any XML communication master
  • Creates and registers customized variables defined by the user (EnPI, %, Kg, CO2, Euros, …)

Click here to obtain more information about MDC 4 and MDC 20

New MDC series to manage and control the maximum demand

You can also follow our publications on CIRCUTOR's Twitter account, and on LinkedIn.



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Tel: (+34) 93 745 29 00
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